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Thomas Jefferson University - David Abraham, PhD
David Abraham, PhD

Microbiology & Immunology
Thomas Jefferson University
Jefferson Medical College
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
Professor

Mailing Address
233 South !0 Street
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107
United States
Contact Information
Phone: 215-503-8917
Fax: 215-923-9248
David.Abraham@jefferson.edu
Qualifications
BS, City College of New York, Biology, 1973

MS, Tulane University, Parasitology, 1977

PhD, University of Pennsylvania, Parasitology, 1983
Expertise and Research Interests
Role of eosinophils, neutrophils and macrophages in innate and adaptive immunity to nematode infections. The goal of these studies is to define at a molecular level the mechanisms used by these cells, from both humans and mice, to kill parasites and to identify the immune evasion mechanisms used by the parasites

Vaccine development against parasitic helminths. Multivalent vaccines are being developed against Onchocerca volvulus, the causative agent of river blindness, and against Stongyloides stercoralis. The basis of the vaccines will the combination of recombinant antigens with adjuvants capable of inducing specific types of immune responses.

Keywords
Eosinophil; Neutrophil; Macrophage, Antigen Presenting Cell; Complement; T cells: B cells; Antibody; Immunology; Strongyloides stercoralis; Onchocerca volvulus; Helminthology; Microbiology; Parasitology;
Publications
  • Nelson, P.D., D.J. Weiner, B.E. Stromberg, and D. ABRAHAM. 1982. In vitro cultivation of third-stage larvae of Litomosoides carinii to the fourth stage. Journal of Parasitology. 68:971-973.
  • Weiner, D.J., D. ABRAHAM, and R. D'Antonio, 1984. Litomosoides carinii in jirds (Meriones unguiculatus): ability to retard development of challenge larvae can be transferred with cells and serum. Journal of Helminthology. 58:129-137.
  • Grieve, R.B., S.A. Griffing, M.H. Goldschmidt and D. ABRAHAM. 1985. Transplantation of adult Dirofilaria immitis into Lewis rats: parasitologic and serologic findings. Journal of Parasitology. 71:391-39
  • ABRAHAM, D. 1985. Transplanted Dipetalonema viteae in the jird: effect of worm burden on parturition rates and microfilaremia. Journal of Parasitology. 71:742-744.
  • ABRAHAM, D., D.J. Weiner, and J.P. Farrell. 1986. Protective immune responses of the jird to larval Dipetalonema viteae. Immunology. 57:165-169.
  • Kirkpatrick, C.E., D.A. Leiby, D. ABRAHAM, and C.H. Duffy III. 1986. Gongylonema pulchrum Molin (Nematoda: Gongylonematidae) in black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas) from Pennsylvania. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 22:119-121.
  • Mok, M., D. ABRAHAM, R.B. Grieve, and C.B. Thomas. 1986. Thermotaxis in third and fourth stage Dirofilaria immitis larvae. Journal of Helminthology. 60:61-64.
  • ABRAHAM, D., D.J. Weiner and J.P. Farrell. 1986. Cellular and humoral immune responses of jirds resistant to Dipetalonema viteae infection. Infection and Immunity. 52:742-747.
  • Weiner, D.J., D. ABRAHAM, and R. D'Antonio. 1986. The effect of diethylcarbamazine on microfilariae of Litomosoides carinii in vitro and in vivo. Zeitschrift fur Parasitenkunde. 72:805-813.
  • ABRAHAM, D., S. Lauria, M. Mika-Grieve, J.B. Lok, and R.B. Grieve. 1986. Survival and viability of Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae in defined and undefined culture medium. Journal of Parasitology. 72:776-777.
  • ABRAHAM, D., M. Mok, M. Mika-Grieve, and R.B. Grieve. 1987. In vitro culture of Dirofilaria immitis third- and fourth-stage larvae under defined conditions. Journal of Parasitology. 73:377-383.
  • ABRAHAM, D. Biology of Dirofilaria immitis. 1988. In: Dirofilariasis. P.F.L. Boreham and R. Atwell (Eds.) CRC Press, Inc. Boca Raton, Florida.
  • Bowman, D.D., D. ABRAHAM, M. Mika-Grieve, and R.B. Grieve. 1988. Binding of concanavalin A to areas compatible with the locations of the amphids and phasmids of larvae of Dirofilaria immitis (Nematoda: Filarioidea) and Toxocara canis (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea). Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington. 55:94-96.
  • ABRAHAM, D., R.B. Grieve, and M. Mika-Grieve. 1988. Dirofilaria immitis: Surface properties of third- and fourth-stage larvae. Experimental Parasitology. 65:157-167.
  • ABRAHAM, D., R.B. Grieve, M. Mika-Grieve, and B.P. Seibert. 1988. Active and passive immunization of mice against larval Dirofilaria immitis. Journal of Parasitology. 74:275-282.
  • Grieve, R.B., D. ABRAHAM, M. Mika-Grieve, and B.P. Seibert. 1988. Induction of protective immunity in dogs to infection with Dirofilaria immitis with chemically - abbreviated infections. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 39:373-379.
  • Mok, M., R.B. Grieve, D. ABRAHAM, and W. Rudin. 1988. Solubilization of epicuticular antigens from Dirofilaria immitis third-stage larvae. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology. 31:173-182.
  • ABRAHAM, D., R.B. Grieve, J.M. Holy, and B.M. Christensen. 1989. Immunity to larval Brugia malayi in BALB/c mice: Protective immunity and inhibition of larval development. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 40:598-604.
  • Arasu, P., T.B. Nutman, C. Steel, M. Mulligan, D. ABRAHAM, R.S. Tuan, and F.B. Perler. 1989. Human T-cell stimulation, molecular characterization and in situ mRNA localization of a filarial parasite recombinant antigen. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology. 36:223-232.
  • Grieve, R.B., G.R. Frank, V.A. Stewart, J.C. Parsons, D. ABRAHAM, P.S. MacWillians, and D.I. Hepler. 1989. Effect of dosage and dose timing on heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) chemoprophylaxis with milbemycin. Proceedings of Heartworm Symposium '89. American Heartworm Society, Publisher. Washington, D.C. pp 121-124.
  • ABRAHAM, D., J.A. Oaks, and R.B. Grieve. 1990. Dirofilaria immitis: Molting process of third stage larvae. Experimental Parasitology. 70:314-322.
  • ABRAHAM, D. and R.B. Grieve. 1990. Genetic control of murine immune responses to larval Dirofilaria immitis. Journal of Parasitology. 76:523-528.
  • ABRAHAM, D. and R. B. Grieve. 1991. Passive transfer of protective immunity to larval Dirofilaria immitis from dogs to BALB/c mice. Journal of Parasitology. 77: 254-257.
  • Tuan, R.S., K. J. Shepley, M. M. Mulligan, D. ABRAHAM, and F.B. Perler. 1991. Histochemical localization of gene expression in Onchocerca volvulus: in situ DNA histohybridization and immunocytochemistry. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology. 49: 191-204.
  • ABRAHAM, D., M. L. Eberhard, A. M. Lange, W. Yutanawiboonchai, F. B. Perler, and J. B. Lok. 1992. Identification of surrogate rodent hosts for larval Onchocerca lienalis and induction of protective immunity in a model system. Journal of Parasitology. 78: 447-453.
  • Lok, J.B. and D. ABRAHAM. 1992. Animal models for the study of immunity in human filariasis. Parasitology Today. 8: 168-171.
  • ABRAHAM, D., A. M. Lange, W. Yutanawiboonchai, M. Trpis, J. W. Dickerson, B. Swenson, and M. L. Eberhard. 1993. Survival and development of larval Onchocerca volvulus in primate and rodent hosts. Journal of Parasitology. 79: 571-582.
  • Lange, A. M., W. Yutanawiboonchai, J. B. Lok, M. Trpis, and D. ABRAHAM. 1993. Induction of protective immunity against larval Onchocerca volvulus in a mouse model. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 49: 783-788.
  • Lange, A. M., W. Yutanawiboonchai, P. Scott, and D. ABRAHAM. 1994. IL-4 and IL-5 dependent protective immunity to Onchocerca volvulus infective larvae in BALB/cBYJ mice. Journal of Immunology. 153: 205-211.
  • Eberhard, M.L. and D. ABRAHAM. 1994. The chimpanzee in the development of vaccines for parasitological diseases. In: The Role of the Chimpanzee in Research. G. Eder, E. Kaiser, and F.A. King (Eds.) S. Karger, Publisher. Basel, Switzerland.
  • ABRAHAM, D., H. L. Rotman, H. F. Haberstroh, W. Yutanawiboonchai, R. A. Brigandi, O. Leon, T. J. Nolan, and G. A. Schad. 1995. Strongyloides stercoralis: protective immunity to third-stage larvae in BALB/cByJ mice. Experimental Parasitology. 80: 297-307.
  • Resnicoff, M., D. ABRAHAM, W. Yutanawiboonchai, H.L. Rotman, J. Kajstura, R. Rubin, P. Zoltick, and R. Baserga. 1995. The insulin-like growth factor I receptor protects tumor cells from apoptosis in vivo. Cancer Research. 55: 2463-2469.
  • Rotman, H. L., W. Yutanawiboonchai, R. A. Brigandi, O. Leon, T. J. Nolan, G. A. Schad and D. ABRAHAM. 1995. Strongyloides stercoralis: complete life cycle in Scid mice. Experimental Parasitology. 81: 136-139.
  • Nolan, T.J., H.L. Rotman, V. Bhopale, G.A. Schad, and D. ABRAHAM. 1995. Immunity to a challenge infection of Strongyloides stercoralis third stage larvae in the jird. Parasite Immunology. 17: 599-604.
  • Resnicoff, M., J.L. Burgaud, H.L. Rotman, D. ABRAHAM and R. Baserga. 1995. Correlation between apoptosis, tumorigenesis and levels of insulin-like growth factor I receptors. Cancer Research. 55: 3739-3741.
  • Bergman, R.N., E.R. James, D. ABRAHAM, and J.B. Lok. 1996. Development of Onchocerca cervicalis to the third larval stage in Simulium pictipes. Journal of the Helminthological Society of Washington. 63: 105-109.
  • Yutanawiboonchai W., R.A. Brigandi, H.L. Rotman and D. ABRAHAM. 1996. Structural and molecular specificity of antibody responses in mice immune to third stage larvae of Onchocerca volvulus. Parasite Immunology. 18: 95-102.
  • Rotman, H.L., W. Yutanawiboonchai, R.A. Brigandi, O. Leon, G.J. Gleich, T. J. Nolan, G.A. Schad, and D. ABRAHAM. 1996. Strongyloides stercoralis: Eosinophil-dependent immune-mediated killing of third stage larvae in BALB/cByJ mice. Experimental Parasitology 82: 267-278.
  • Brigandi, R.A., H.L. Rotman, W. Yutanawiboonchai, O. Leon, T. J. Nolan, G.A. Schad, and D. ABRAHAM. 1996. Strongyloides stercoralis: Role of antibody and complement in immunity to the third stage larvae in BALB/cByJ mice. Experimental Parasitology 82: 279-289.
  • Resnicoff, M., J. Tjuvajev, H.L. Rotman, D. ABRAHAM, M. Curtis, R. Aiken, J. Posner, and R. Baserga. 1996. Regression of C6 rat brain tumors by cells expressing an antisense insulin-like growth factor I receptor RNA. Journal of Experimental Therapeutics and Oncology. 1:385-389.
  • Narr, L.L., J.G. ODonnell, B. Libster, P. Alessi and D. ABRAHAM. 1996. Eustrongylidiasis-a parasitic infection acquired from eating live minnows. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 96:400-402.
  • Rotman, H.L., S. Schnyder-Candrian, P. Scott, T.J. Nolan, G.A. Schad, and D. ABRAHAM. 1997. IL-12 eliminates the Th-2 dependent protective immune response of mice to larval Strongyloides stercoralis. Parasite Immunology. 19:29-39.
  • Brigandi, R.A., H.L. Rotman, T.J. Nolan, G.A. Schad, and D. ABRAHAM. 1997. Chronicity in Strongyloides stercoralis infections: dichotomy of the protective immune response to infective and autoinfective larvae in a mouse model. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 56: 640-646.
  • Resnicoff, M., Z. Huang, D. Herbert, D. ABRAHAM and R. Baserga. 1997. A novel class of peptides that induce apoptosis and abrogate tumorigenesis in vivo. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 240: 208-212.
  • Brigandi R. A., H. L. Rotman, O. Leon, T. J. Nolan, G. A. Schad, and D. ABRAHAM. 1998. Strongyloides stercoralis host-adapted third stage larvae are the target of eosinophil-associated immune-mediated killing in mice. Journal of Parasitology. 84: 440-445.
  • Resnicoff, M., B. Valentinis, D. Herbert, D. ABRAHAM, P.D. Friesen, E.S. Alnemri, and R. Baserga. 1998. The baculovirus anti-apoptotic P35 protein promotes survival and transformation of mouse embryo fibroblasts. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273: 10376-10380.
  • Johnson, E.H., S. Schnyder-Candrian, T.V. Rajan, F.K. Nelson, S. Lustigman, and D. ABRAHAM. 1998. Immune responses to third stage larvae of Onchocerca volvulus in interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 knockout mice. Parasite Immunology. 20:319-324.
  • Herbert, D.R., J.J. Lee, N.A. Lee, T.J., Nolan, G.A. Schad and D. ABRAHAM. 2000. Role of IL-5 in innate and adaptive immunity to larval Strongyloides stercoralis in mice. Journal of Immunology. 165:4544-4551
  • Kamishima, T., ME. Schweitzer, H. Awaya and D. ABRAHAM. 2000. Utilization of used vials: cost-effective technique for MR arthrography. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 12:953-955.
  • ABRAHAM, D. O. Leon, S. Leon, and S. Lustigman. 2001. Development of a recombinant antigen vaccine against infection with the filarial worm Onchocerca volvulus. Infection and Immunity. 69:262-270.
  • Wang, C.C., T.J. Nolan, G.A. Schad, and D. ABRAHAM. 2001. Infection of mice with the helminth Strongyloides stercoralis suppresses pulmonary allergic responses to ovalbumin. Clinical and Experimental Allergy. 31:495-503.
  • Krolewiecki, A.J., S. Leon, P.A. Scott, T. J. Nolan, G. A. Schad and D. ABRAHAM. 2001. Effect of chronic ethanol consumption on protective T-helper 1 and T-helper 2 immune responses against the parasites Leishmania major and Strongyloides stercoralis in mice. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 25:571-578.
  • McCarthy, J. S, M. Wieseman , J. Tropea, D. Kaslow, D. ABRAHAM, S. Lustigman, R. Tuan , R. H. Guderian and T.B. Nutman TB. 2002. Onchocerca volvulus fructose 1,6 biphosphate aldolase: a parasite glycolytic enzyme as target for protective human immune response. Infection and Immunity, 70:851-858.
  • Lustigman, S., E. R James, W. Tawe and D. ABRAHAM. 2002. Progress towards the development of a recombinant antigen vaccine against Onchocerca volvulus. Trends in Parasitology, 18:135-141.
  • ABRAHAM, D., R. Lucius and A.J. Trees. 2002. Immunity to Onchocerca spp. in animal hosts. Trends in Parasitology, 18:164-171.
  • Herbert, D. R., T. J. Nolan, G. A. Schad and D. ABRAHAM. 2002. The role of B cells in immunity against larval Strongyloides stercoralis in mice. Parasite Immunology. 24:95-101.
  • Herbert, D. R., T. J. Nolan, G. A. Schad, S. Lustigman and D. ABRAHAM. 2002. Immunoaffinity isolated antigens induce protective immunity against larval Strongyloides stercoralis in mice. Experimental Parasitology 100:112-120.
  • Nolan, T. J., V. M. Bhopale, H. L. Rotman, D. ABRAHAM and G. A. Schad. 2002. Strongyloides stercoralis: high worm population density leads to autoinfection in the jird (Meriones unguiculatus). Experimental Parasitology. 100: 173-178.
  • Krolewiecki, A.J., S. Leon, P.A. Scott, and D. ABRAHAM. 2002. Activity of azithromycin against Leishmania major in vitro and in vivo. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 67:273-277.
  • Lustigman, S., A.J. MacDonald and D.ABRAHAM. 2003. CD4+ dependent immunity to Onchocerca volvulus third-stage larvae in humans and the mouse vaccination model: common ground and distinctions. International Journal for Parasitology. 33:1161-1171.
  • Ligas, J.A., L.A. Kerepesi, A. M. Galioto, S. Lustigman, T. J. Nolan, G. A. Schad and D. ABRAHAM. 2003. Specificity and mechanism of immunoglobulin M (IgM)- and IgG-dependent protective immunity to larval Strongyloides stercoralis in mice. Infection and Immunity. 71: 6835-6843
  • ABRAHAM, D., O. Leon, S. Schnyder-Candrian, C.C. Wang, A.M. Galioto, L. A. Kerepesi, J. J. Lee and S. Lustigman. 2004. Immunoglobulin E and eosinophil-dependent protective immunity to larval Onchocerca volvulus in mice immunized with irradiated larvae. Infection and Immunity. 72: 810-817
  • Kerepesi, L.A., T.J. Nolan, G. A. Schad, S. Lustigman, D.R. Herbert, P. B. Keiser, T. B. Nutman, A.J. Krolewiecki and D. ABRAHAM. 2004. Human immunoglobulin G mediates protective immunity and identifies protective antigens against larval Strongyloides stercoralis in mice. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 189:1282-1290.
  • MacDonald, A.J., W. Tawe, O. Leon, L. Cao, J. Liu, Y. Oskov, D. ABRAHAM, and S. Lustigman. 2004. OV-ASP-1, the Onchocerca volvulus homologue of the activation associated secreted protein family is immunostimulatory and can induce protective anti-larval immunity. Parasite Immunology. 26: 53-62.
  • Kerepesi L.A., P.B. Keiser, T.J. Nolan, G.A. Schad, D. ABRAHAM, and T.B. Nutman. 2005. DNA immunization with Na+-K+ATPase (Sseat-6) induces protective immunity to larval Strongyloides stercoralis in mice. Infection and Immunity. 73:2298-2305
  • Kerepesi L.A., O. Leon, S. Lustigman and D. ABRAHAM. 2005. Protective immunity to the larval stages of Onchocerca volvulus is dependent on Toll-like receptor 4. Infection and Immunity. 73:8291-8297
  • Kerepesi L.A, J.A. Hess, T.J. Nolan, G.A. Schad and D. ABRAHAM. 2006. Complement component C3 is required for protective innate and adaptive immunity to larval Strongyloides stercoralis in mice. Journal of Immunology. 176:4315-4322.
  • Padigel, U.M., J. J. Lee, T.J. Nolan, G.A. Schad and D. ABRAHAM. 2006. Eosinophils can function as antigen presenting cells to induce primary and secondary immune responses to Strongyloides stercoralis. Infection and Immunity. 74:3232-3238.
  • Galioto, A.M., J. A. Hess, T. J. Nolan, G. A. Schad, J. J. Lee, and D. ABRAHAM. 2006. Role of eosinophils and neutrophils in innate and adaptive protective immunity to larval Strongyloides stercoralis in mice. Infection and Immunity. 74:5730-5738.
  • Kerepesi L.A, J.A. Hess, O. Leon, T.J. Nolan, G.A. Schad and D. ABRAHAM. 2007. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is required for protective immunity to larval Strongyloides stercoralis in mice. Microbes and Infection. 9:28-34.
  • Padigel, U.M., L. Stein, K. Redding, J.J. Lee, T.J. Nolan, G.A. Schad, L. Birnbaumer and D. ABRAHAM. 2007. Signaling through Gai2 protein is required for recruitment of neutrophils for antibody mediated elimination of larval Strongyloides stercoralis in mice. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 81:1120-1126.
  • Krolewiecki, A.J., H.D. Romero, S.P. Cajal, D. ABRAHAM, T. Mimori, M. Tamami, M. Juarez and N.J. Taranto. 2007 A randomized clinical trial comparing oral azithromycin and meglumine antimoniate for the treatment of American cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmaniana (Viannia) braziliensis. American Journal of Tropical Medicine. 77:640-646.
  • Padigel, U.M., J.A. Hess, J.J. Lee, J.B. Lok, T.J. Nolan, G.A. Schad, and D. ABRAHAM. 2007. Eosinophils act as antigen presenting cells to induce immunity to Strongyloides stercoralis in mice. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 196:1844-1851.
  • Sinagra, A., C. Luna, D. ABRAHAM, M. C. Iannella, A. Riarte and A.J. Krolewiecki. 2007. The activity of azithromycin against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in the golden hamster model. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 40: 627-630.
  • Lustigman, S and D. ABRAHAM. 2009. Onchocerciasis. In: Vaccines for Biodefense and Emerging and Neglected Diseases. A.D.T. Barrett and L.R Stanberry (Eds.) Academic Press, London.
  • Alugupalli, K.R. and D. ABRAHAM. 2009. B cell multitasking is required to control nematode infection. Immunity 30: 317-319.
  • Stein, L.H., K.M. Redding, J.J. Lee, T.J. Nolan, G.A. Schad , J.B. Lok and D. ABRAHAM. 2009. Eosinophils utilize multiple chemokine receptors for chemotaxis to the parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Journal of Innate Immunity. 1:618-630.
  • O'Connell, A.E., L.A. Kerepesi, G.L. Vandergrift, D.R. Herbert, T.J. Van Winkle, D.C. Hooper, E.J. Pearce, and D. ABRAHAM. 2009. IL-4-/- mice with lethal Mesocestoides corti infections - reduced Th2 cytokines and alternatively activated macrophages. Parasite Immunology. 31:741-749.
  • Krolewiecki, A.J., R. Ramanathan. V. Fink, I. McAuliffe, S.P. Cajal, K. Won, M. Juarez, A. Di Paolo, L. Tapia, N. Acosta, R. Lee, P. Lammie, D. ABRAHAM and T.B. Nutman. 2010. Improved diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis using recombinant antigen-based serologies in a community-wide study in northern Argentina. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 17:1624-1630
  • O'Connell, A.E., K.M. Redding, J.A. Hess, J.B. Lok, T.J. Nolan, and D. ABRAHAM. 2011. Soluble extract from the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis induces CXCR2 dependent / IL-17 independent neutrophil recruitment. Microbes and Infection. 13:536-544
  • Ramanathan, R., S. Varma, J.M.C. Ribeiro, T.G. Myers, T.J. Nolan, D. ABRAHAM, J.B. Lok and T.B. Nutman. 2011. Microarray-based analysis of differential gene expression between infective and noninfective larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 5: e1039
  • O'Connell A.E, J.A. Hess, G.A. Santiago, T.J. Nolan, J.B. Lok, J.J. Lee, and D. ABRAHAM.. 2011. Major basic protein from eosinophils and myeloperoxidase from neutrophils are required for protective immunity to Strongyloides stercoralis in mice. Infection and Immunity. 79:2770-2778
  • ABRAHAM, D., J.A. Hess, R. Mejia, T. J. Nolan, J. B. Lok, S. Lustigman and T. B. Nutman. 2011. Immunization with the recombinant antigen Ss-IR induces protective immunity to infection with Strongyloides stercoralis in mice. Vaccine. 29:8134-8140
  • Bonne-AnnĂ©e, S., J.A. Hess, and D. ABRAHAM. 2011. Innate and adaptive immunity to the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis in a mouse model. Immunologic Research. 51:205-214
  • Colombo, M.J., D. ABRAHAM, A. Shibuya and K.R. Alugupalli. 2011. B1b lymphocyte-derived antibodies control Borrelia hermsii independent of Fc alpha/mu receptor and in the absence of host cell contact. Immunologic Research. 51:249-256

Individual Expertise profile of David Abraham, PhD, Copyright © David Abraham, PhD.
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