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Thomas Jefferson University - Makarand V. Risbud, Ph.D.
Makarand V. Risbud, Ph.D.

Orthopaedic Surgery
Thomas Jefferson University
Jefferson Medical College
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
Appointed: 2002

Graduate Program in Cell and Developmental Biology
and Track in Tissue Eng. and Regenerative Medicine
Thomas Jefferson University
Mailing Address
1015 Walnut St., Suite 501, Curtis Bldg.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107
United States
Contact Information
M.Sc., Biochemistry, University of Pune, 1997
M.Tech., Indian Institute of Technology (IIT): Bombay, 1999
Ph.D., National Center for Cell Science, India, 2001
Post Doc Fellowship, Harvard University, Boston, 2001-2002
Expertise and Research Interests
Major research focus of my lab is to study the mechanisms by which nucleus pulposus cells of the intervertebral disc adapt to avascular (hypoxic) and osmotically compromising environment. In this regard, we are studying role of transciption factors HIFs and TonEBP and signaling events that control their function. Another major research interest is to device tissue-enginering based strategies for intervertebral disc regeneration. We are testing hypothesis that adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) transplanted into the disc will assume nucleus pulposus-like phenotype and achieve functional restoration of degenerate disc. Our recent work shows that MSC differentiate into nucleus pulposus-like cells when cultured under conditions similar to that exist in the disc in vivo. A whole disc organ culture is also under investigation to understand aspects of disc cell function in an ex vivo setting.
Other Expertise
Cell-Scaffold intereactions at molecular level and chitosan based scaffolds
Industrial Relevance
My reaserch has a strong translational component. Regeneration of degenerate intervertberal disc using adult-mesenchymal stem cells could be a clinical therapy in future and is of immense interest to many biotech and health science companies.
Intervertebral Disc; Mesenchymal Stem Cells; Nucleus Pulposus Cells; Hypoxia; HIF-1, hypertonicity, TonEBP, Cell signaling; Tissue Engineering, Scaffolds
English, Hindi, Marathi
  • Risbud MV, Bhonde MR, Bhonde RR. Chitosan-PVP hydrogel does not activate macrophages: Implications for transplantation applications. Cell Transplant 2001; 10:195-202.
  • Risbud MV, Bhonde MR, Bhonde RR. Effect of chitosan-polyvinyl pyrrolidone hydrogel on proliferation and cytokine expression of endothelial cells: Implications in islet immunoisolation. J Biomed Mater Res. 2001; 57:300-375.
  • Risbud MV, Ringe J, Bhonde RR, Sittinger M. In vitro expression of cartilage specific markers by chondrocytes on biocompatible hydrogel: Implications in cartilage engineering. Cell Transplant 2001; 10:755-63.
  • Risbud MV, Karamuk E, Moser R, Mayer J. Hydrogel coated textile scaffolds as three-dimensional growth support for human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs): Possibilities as co-culture system in liver tissue engineering. Cell Transplant. 2002, 11: 369-377.
  • Risbud MV, Sittinger M. Tissue Engineering: Advances in In Vitro Cartilage Generation. Trends in Biotechnology 2002, 20: 351-356
  • Risbud MV. Izzo MW. Albert TJ. Shapiro IM. An organ culture system for the study of the nucleus pulposus: Description of the system and evaluation of the cells. Spine 2003; 28: 2652-8.
  • Hutmacher DW. Sittinger M., Risbud MV, Scaffold-based tissue engineering: rationale for computer-aided design and solid free-form fabrication systems. Trends Biotechnol. 2004; 22:354-362.
  • Sittinger M , Hutmacher DW, Risbud MV. Current strategies for cell delivery in cartilage and bone regeneration. Curr. Opin Biotechnol 15:411-8, 2004
  • Risbud MV, Shapiro IM, Vaccaro AR, Albert TJ. Stem cell regeneration of the nucleus pulposus. Spine J. 4:348S-353S,2004.
  • Risbud MV, Guttapalli A, Albert TJ. Vresilovic E, Shapiro IM. Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells towards a nucleus pulposus-like phenotype in vitro: implications for cell based transplantation therapy. Spine 29:2627-32,2004
  • Risbud MV. Fertala J, Vresilovic E, Albert TJ, Shapiro IM. Nucleus pulposus cells upregulate PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK signaling pathways under hypoxic conditions and resist apoptosis induced by serum withdrawal. Spine 30:882-9,2005
  • Risbud MV, Guttapalli A, Albert TJ, Shapiro IM. Hypoxia activates MAPK activity in rat nucleus pulposus cells: regulation of integrin expression and cell survival. Spine 30:2503-9, 2005.
  • Risbud MV, Shapiro IM, Guttapalli A, et al. Osteogenic potential of adult human stem cells of the lumbar vertebral body and the iliac crest. Spine 31:83-9, 2006.
  • Risbud MV, Guttapalli A, Stokes DG, Hawkins D, Danielson KG, Schaer TP, Albert TJ, Shapiro IM. Nucleus pulposus cells express HIF-1a under normoxic culture conditions: A metabolic adaptation to the intervertebral disc microenvironment. J Cell Biochem. 2006;98:152-9.
  • Tsai TT, Danielson KG, Guttapalli A, Oguz E, Albert TJ, Shapiro IM, Risbud MV. TonEBP/OREBP is a regulator of nucleus pulposus cell function and survival in the intervertebral disc. J Biol Chem. 2006; 281:25416-25424.
  • Tsai TT, Guttapalli A, Agrawal A, Albert TJ, Shapiro IM, Risbud MV. MEK/ERK Signaling Controls Osmoregulation of Nucleus Pulposus Cells of the Intervertebral Disc by Transactivation of TonEBP/OREBP. J Bone Miner Res. 2007; 22:965-974.
  • Agrawal A, Guttapalli A, Narayan SB, Albert TJ, Shapiro IM, Risbud MV. Normoxic stabilization of HIF-1{alpha} drives glycolytic metabolism and regulates aggrecan gene expression in rat nucleus pulposus cells of the intervertebral disc. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007; 293(2):C621-31
  • Zeng Y, Danielson KG, Albert TJ, Shapiro IM, Risbud MV. HIF-1alpha is a Regulator of Galectin-3 Expression in the Intervertebral Disc. J Bone Miner Res. 2007; 22(12):1851-61.
  • Uchiyama Y, Cheng CC, Danielson KG, Mochida J, Albert TJ, Shapiro IM, Risbud MV. Expression of acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) in nucleus pulposus cells of the intervertebral disc is regulated by p75NTR and ERK signaling. J Bone Miner Res. 2007;22(12):1996-2006.
  • Risbud MV, Guttapalli A, Tsai TT, Lee JY, Danielson KG, Vaccaro AR, Albert TJ, Gazit Z, Gazit D, Shapiro IM. Evidence for skeletal progenitor cells in the degenerate human intervertebral disc. Spine. 2007;32(23):2537-44.
  • Uchiyama Y, Guttapalli A, Gajghate S, Mochida J, Shapiro IM, Risbud MV. SMAD3 functions as a transcriptional repressor of acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) in nucleus pulposus cells of the intervertebral disc. J Bone Miner Res. 2008;23(10):1619-28.
  • Agrawal A, Gajghate S, Smith H, Anderson DG, Albert TJ, Shapiro IM, Risbud MV. Cited2 modulates hypoxia-inducible factor-dependent expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in nucleus pulposus cells of the rat intervertebral disc. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58(12):3798-808.
  • Gajghate S, Hiyama A, Shah M, Sakai D, Anderson DG, Shapiro IM, Risbud MV. Osmolarity and Intracellular Calcium Regulate Aquaporin2 Expression Through TonEBP in Nucleus Pulposus Cells of the Intervertebral Disc. J Bone Miner Res. 2009; 24:992-1001
  • Hiyama A, Gajghate S, Sakai D, Mochida J, Shapiro IM, Risbud MV. Activation of TonEBP by calcium controls beta 1,3 glucuronosyl transferase-I (GlcAT-I) expression, a key regulator of glycosaminoglycan synthesis in cells of the intervertebral disc. J Biol Chem. 2009 284:9824-34
  • Cheng CC, Uchiyama Y, Hiyama A, Gajghate Shapiro IM, Risbud MV. PI3K/AKT Regulates Aggrecan Gene Expression by Modulating Sox9 Expression and Activity in Nucleus Pulposus Cells of the Intervertebral Disc J Cell Physiol. 2009; 221:668-76.
  • Hiyama A, Gogate SS, Gajghate S, Mochida J, Shapiro IM, Risbud MV. BMP-2 and TGFbeta Stimulate Expression of beta1,3 Glucuronosyl Transferase-I (GlcAT-I) in Nucleus Pulposus Cells Through AP1, TonEBP and Sp1: Role of Map Kinases. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25:1179-90.
  • Saraiya M, Nasser R, Zeng Y, Addya S, Ponnappan RK, Fortina P, Anderson DG, Albert T, Shapiro IM, Risbud MV. Reversine Enhances Generation Of Progenitor-Like Cells By De-Differentiation Of Annulus Fibrosus Cells.Tissue Eng Part A. 2010; 16:1443-55
  • Risbud MV, Schipani E, Shapiro IM. Hypoxic regulation of nucleus pulposus cell function: fom niche to notch. Am J. Pathol 2010;176:1577-83
  • Tran CM, Markova D, Smith H, Susarla B, Ponnappan R, Anderson DG, Symes A, Shapiro IM, Risbud MV. Regulation of CCN2/CTGF Expression in the Nucleus Pulposus of the Intervertebral Disc: Role of Smad and AP1 Signaling" Arthritis Rheum. 2010, 62:1983-92.
  • Skubutyte R, Markova D, Freeman T, Anderson DG, Dion S, Williams CJ, Shapiro IM, Risbud MV. HIF Regulation of ANK Expression in Nucleus Pulposus Cells: Possible Implications in Controlling Dystrophic Mineralization in the Intervertebral Disc Arthritis Rheum 2010, 62:2707-15
  • Shapiro IM, Risbud MV. Transcriptional profiling of the nucleus pulposus: say yes to notochord. Arthritis Res Ther. 2010; 12:117.
  • Hiyama A, Mochida J, Risbud MV, Sakai D. Enhanced intervertebral disc cells senescence by Wnt/²-catenin signaling-induced matrix metalloproteinase expression. Arthritis Rheum. 2010 62:3036-47
  • Risbud MV, Schaer T, Shapiro IM. Towards an understanding of the role of notochordal cells in the intervertebral disc: from discord to accord Dev Dyn 2010, 239:2141-8
  • Hiyama A, Skubutyte R, Markova D, Anderson DG, Yadla S, Sakai D, Mochida J, Albert TJ, Shapiro IM, Risbud MV. Hypoxia Activates Notch Signaling Pathway in the Cells of the Intervertebral Disc: Implications in Degenerative Disc Disease. Arthritis Rheum. 2011, 63:1355-64.
  • Gogate S, Nasser R, Shapiro IM, Risbud MV. Hypoxic Regulation of beta 1,3 Glucuronosyl Transferase-I (GlcAT-I) Expression in Nucleus Pulposus Cells of The Intervertebral Disc: Role of HIF Proteins. Arthritis Rheum. 2011, 63:1950-60.
  • Risbud MV, Shapiro IM. Notochordal cells in the adult intervertebral disc: new perspective on an old question. Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr. 2011, 21:29-41.
  • Tran CM, Smith H, Symes A, Rittie L, Perbal B, Shapiro IM, Risbud MV. TGF² Controls CCN3 Expression in Nucleus Pulposus Cells of the Intervertebral Disc. Arthritis Rheum. May 25, 2011 (In press).

Individual Expertise profile of Makarand V. Risbud, Ph.D., Copyright © Makarand V. Risbud, Ph.D..
Last Updated by Makarand Risbud, Ph.D. : Friday, September 2, 2011 12:36:10 PM

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