Thomas Jefferson University

Performance Requirements/
Technical Standards

Individuals participating in programs of the Jefferson College of Health Professions and Nursing at Thomas Jefferson University are required to have essential skills to perform successfully as a student. These requirements apply to classroom, laboratory and clinical/fieldwork environments. Students must be able to perform certain skills and functions with or without reasonable accommodation.

If you have any questions about Performance Requirements/Technical Standards, please contact the Office of Admissions and Enrollment Management, 1-877-JEFF-247 or (215) 503-8890.

Medical Laboratory Sciences & Biotechnology

Technical standards are the fundamental abilities that are absolutely necessary to perform the activities requisite to obtaining credit for education and subsequent entry-level employment in the field. Technical standards are based on the competency, proficiency and/or skill standards set forth by accrediting and professional organizations appropriate to each of the Medical Laboratory Sciences & Biotechnology programs. The technical standards of the Department do not preclude the use of an assistive device or devices, alternative means to aid in or evaluate the performance of essential functions, or program time extensions necessary to accomplish the requirements of the program. Such accommodation must be requested in a timely manner, and must be documented, reasonable, appropriate and available to the Department and/or the student.

Technical Standards of the Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences & Biotechnology are:

  1. The ability to observe and participate in classroom exchanges, demonstrations, experiments and other learning venues in the applicable laboratory discipline or in interdisciplinary didactic and clinical settings.
  2. The ability to analyze, synthesize, solve problems and reach interpretive judgments.
  3. Sufficient use of the senses of vision, hearing, somatic sensation and motor movement necessary to learn and perform applicable laboratory procedures and associated data management in the classroom, clinical or research setting.
  4. The ability to communicate electronically, in writing and verbally with faculty, other students and professional colleagues with accuracy, clarity, efficiency and timeliness.
  5. Sufficient cognitive and physical ability to comply with physical, chemical and biohazard precautions.

Couple & Family Therapy

Individuals participating in the Couple and Family Therapy Program at Thomas Jefferson University must have essential skills to perform successfully as a student. These requirements apply to classroom, supervision and clinical environments. A student must be able to perform the following cognitive/intellectual tasks with or without reasonable accommodation:

  1. Acquire, process, retain and apply knowledge through a variety of instructional methods such as written materials, lecture, video, clinical experience, supervision and independent learning.
  2. Complete reading and written assignments in standard and organized English, search and analyze professional literature, apply information gained to guide clinical practice.
  3. Process large amounts of complex information, apply theoretical concepts to clinical practice and perform clinical problem solving in a logical and timely manner.
  4. Apply basic statistical skills to evaluate research findings.
  5. Participate positively in cooperative group learning activities; actively participate in class discussions and as a member of team.
  6. Orally present information in class and in professional and clinical situations in an organized and coherent fashion.
  7. Take and pass tests/quizzes in a variety of formats.
  8. Apply knowledge and judgment required to demonstrate ethical reasoning and behavior.
  9. Apply safety and judgment to a variety of situations.
  10. Comply with practica site rules and regulations.
  11. Demonstrate mastery of core foundational, advanced theoretical and empirical information in the areas of human development, systems theory, family development, models of family and couple therapy, couple and family therapeutic process, human sexuality, gender, diversity, psychopathology, couple and family therapy research, ethics and other areas deemed relevant by the faculty to the field of couple and family therapy.
  12. Apply clinical reasoning and judgment necessary for development of appropriate clinical assessments and development of appropriate treatment plans.
  13. Demonstrate judgment necessary to establish clinical priorities and develop and use effective clinical strategies.
  14. Form a collaborative relationship with clinical supervisors. Students must possess sufficient interpersonal, communication and professional behaviors to adequately perform the following clinical skills and competencies:
    1. Engagement Competencies
      1. Engage the client(s) in treatment in a systemic way.
      2. Foster a feeling of trust and hope in the therapeutic process.
      3. Maintain a balanced therapist-client(s) alliance.
    2. Problem Identification/Assessment Competencies
      1. Obtain all the necessary information about the present problem or problems.
      2. Observe and become aware of the emotional process (es) currently at work in the client(s).
      3. Identify and explore relationship problems, including maladaptive interactional patterns such as triangulation, collapsed hierarchies, boundary issues, intergenerational legacies, attachment styles, destructive entitlement, etc.
      4. Identify individual psychopathology, its role in the system, and implications for treatment.
      5. Use both formal and informal assessment tools to identify individual and relational problems.
      6. Integrate assessment with treatment.
    3. Case Formulation and Goal Setting Competencies
      1. Describe the case within a systems perspective (individual, interactional, intergenerational).
      2. Formulate and test hypotheses about the system.
      3. Describe orally and in written format the functioning of the system from several theoretical perspectives.
      4. Establish realistic and workable goals in collaboration with the client(s).
      5. Change goals as a function of stage of therapy and needs of the client(s).
    4. Change/ Facilitation Competencies
      1. Modify maladaptive interaction patterns using appropriate therapeutic techniques including-pacing, boundary modification, reframing, clarifying cognitive distortions, unbalancing, structuring, creating therapeutic focus and themes, creating enactments, affect regulation, assigning tasks and therapeutic homework, confront or work with resistance, etc.
      2. Clarify how actions may lead to consequences which constitute problems for the client(s).
      3. Help the client(s) to identify alter emotional factors that may block attempts to achieve better functioning.
      4. Alter cognitive factors that may block the client(s) attempts to achieve better functioning.
      5. Help the client(s) implement new, adaptive patterns of interaction.
      6. Help the client(s) mobilize outside resources.
      7. Identify and build on client strengths in the service of change
    5. Termination Competencies
      1. Assess the situation when a client(s) initiates the termination process.
      2. Assess the need for termination and initiating termination when this is appropriate.
      3. Conclude treatment constructively.
    6. Behave in ways that conform to the AAMFT Code of Ethics.

Nursing

Competency

With reasonable accommodation, the student can meet the minimal level of required activity.

Performance Standards for Admission and Graduation

The curriculum in the nursing programs requires students to practice essential nursing skills and functions, as deemed necessary in nursing practice. This includes cognitive, affective, psychomotor, physical and social skills. It is essential that one be able to perform skills in these domains in order to ensure the health and safety of patients, students, faculty and health professionals.

The following skill domains describe the non-academic qualifications that are required in addition to academic qualifications that the Jefferson College of Nursing considers essential for entrance and graduation from the nursing degree programs. Candidates for nursing degrees must be able to meet these minimum standards with or without reasonable accommodation for successful completion of degree requirements.

Domains:

  1. Ability to see, hear, touch, smell and distinguish colors:
    • Ability to gather data independently from written reference materials, oral presentations, demonstrations and observations of a patient in his or her environment.
    • Ability to perform health assessments and interventions independently; observe diagnostic specimens; and obtain information from digital and analog representations to determine patient status and condition.
      Examples of essential functional ability:
      • Visual acuity sufficient to draw up the correct quantity of medication in a syringe and to be able to detect changes in condition, skin color and wound characteristics.
      • Auditory ability sufficient to detect sounds related to bodily functions using a stethoscope or to detect audible alarms generated by mechanical systems used to monitor patient status.
      • Tactile abilities sufficient to detect unsafe temperature levels in heat-producing devices or detect anatomical abnormalities, such as edema or small lumps.
  2. Ability to speak and write with accuracy, clarity and efficiency:
    • Ability to communicate with accuracy, clarity and efficiency with patients, their families and other members of the healthcare team (including spoken and non-verbal communications, such as interpretation of facial expressions, affect and body language).
    • Ability to communicate via speech, hearing, reading, writing and electronic modalities.
      • Abilities sufficient to give verbal directions to or follow verbal directions from other members of the healthcare team and to participate in healthcare team discussions of patient care.
      • Ability sufficient to elicit and record information about health history, current health state or responses to treatment from patients and others.
      • Ability sufficient to convey information to patients, members of the healthcare team and others as necessary to teach, direct and counsel individuals.
  3. Ability to demonstrate manual dexterity in gross and fine movements:
    • Sufficient motor function to execute movements required to provide safe general care and treatment to patients in all healthcare settings.
    • Motor functions include gross and fine motor skills, physical endurance, physical strength and mobility to carry out nursing care procedures, perform basic laboratory tests and provide routine and emergency care and treatment to patients.
      Examples of essential functional ability:
      • Fine motor skills sufficient to obtain assessment information by palpation, percussion, auscultation and other diagnostic maneuvers.
      • Physical endurance sufficient to complete assigned periods of clinical practice.
      • Mobility sufficient to carry out patient care procedures, such as tracheostomy care or performing emergency airway suctioning.
      • Strength sufficient to carry out patient care procedures such as CPR, and in the turning and lifting of patients.
  4. Ability to learn, think critically, analyze, assess, solve problems, reach judgments:
    • Ability to read and understand written documents in English and solve problems involving measurement, calculation, reasoning, analysis and synthesis of laboratory study results and diagnostic interpretations.
    • Ability to gather data, develop a plan of action, establish priorities and monitor treatment plans and modalities.
    • Ability to comprehend three-dimensional and spatial relationships.
      Examples of essential functional ability:
      • Cognitive skills sufficient to calculate appropriate medication dosage given specific patient conditions.
      • Conceptual ability sufficient to analyze and synthesize data and develop an appropriate plan of care.
      • Quantitative ability sufficient to collect data, prioritize needs and anticipate reactions.
      • Ability to comprehend spatial relationships adequate to properly administer IM injections or assess wounds of varying depths.
  5. Ability to demonstrate emotional stability and to accept responsibility and accountability:
    • Ability to relate to colleagues, staff and patients with honesty, integrity and non-discrimination.
    • Capacity for the development of a compassionate and effective therapeutic relationship with patients.
    • Ability to work constructively in stressful and changing environments with the ability to modify behavior in response to constructive criticism.
    • Capacity to demonstrate ethical behavior, including adherence to the Nurse Practice Act.
      Examples of essential functional ability:
      • Emotional skills sufficient to remain calm in an emergency situation.
      • Interpersonal skills sufficient to communicate effectively with patients and families of diverse religious, cultural or social backgrounds.

Once admitted to the Jefferson College of Nursing, all students will be measured by the same academic standards. Regardless of disability and reasonable accommodation, a student must pass all courses at an acceptable level and master all essential clinical competencies.

Sources:
AACN Guidelines for Accommodating Students with Disabilities
New York University - Student Guide to Disability Center
Dundee University - Student Guide to Disabilities
ADA 1990

Occupational Therapy

Students participating in the Occupational Therapy Program at Thomas Jefferson University must have essential skills to perform successfully as a student. These requirements apply to classroom, laboratory and clinical/fieldwork environments. Students must be able to perform the following with or without reasonable accommodation:

Student must possess sufficient COGNITIVE skills to:

  1. acquire, process, retain and apply knowledge through a variety of instructional methods such as written materials, oral delivery, visual demonstrations, laboratory experiences, clinical experiences and independent learning.
  2. complete reading assignments, search and analyze professional literature, and apply information gained to guide practice; learn, retain and use information from texts, journals documentation and other written sources.
  3. process (measure, calculate, analyze, synthesize and evaluate) large amounts of complex information; apply theoretical concepts to practice activities and perform clinical problem solving in a logical and timely manner.
  4. apply mathematical and basic statistical skills.
  5. perceive and understand three-dimensional relationships and spatial relationships necessary for education and practice-related tasks such as moving in a variety of environments, designing treatment equipment and fabricating splints.
  6. participate equitably in cooperative group learning activities; actively participate in class discussions and as a member of a team.
  7. orally present information to groups of people.
  8. maintain attention for 2-4 hours; tolerate days when classes may last 8-10 hours.
  9. take and pass tests/quizzes in a variety of formats.
  10. complete written assignments and produce written documentation in standard and organized English.
  11. apply knowledge and judgment required to demonstrate ethical reasoning and behavior.
  12. apply safety knowledge and judgment to a variety of situations.
  13. comply with fieldwork site rules and regulations.
  14. demonstrate problem-solving skills and judgment necessary to modify evaluation or intervention methods when necessary to address the specific needs of client (behavioral, cultural, etc.), in order to maximize client performance.
  15. apply clinical reasoning and judgment necessary for interpretation of evaluation data and development of treatment plans.
  16. identify and select occupations that are goal-directed and motivate and challenge clients.
  17. Demonstrate judgment necessary to establish priorities and develop and use strategies.

Student must possess sufficient BEHAVIORAL/SOCIAL-COMMUNICATION SKILLS, AND PROFESSIONAL BEHAVIORS to:

  1. demonstrate positive interpersonal skills including, but not limited to, cooperation, flexibility, tact, sympathy and confidence.
  2. demonstrate respect for diversity, including but not limited to, socio-cultural, socioeconomic, spiritual and lifestyle choices.
  3. collaborate with classmates, clients, family members, significant others and team members.
  4. function successfully in supervisory and instructor-student relationships; change and adjust behavior and performance in the classroom, laboratory or clinic on the basis of instructor feedback.
  5. communicate in the English language effectively and clearly in oral and written forms, using proper spelling, punctuation and grammar to explain procedures and teach skills.
  6. use language appropriate to the recipient, with faculty, peers, clients and other health professionals from different social and cultural backgrounds to obtain information from clients, peers, faculty, supervisors and other professionals.
  7. use communication skills needed to practice safely.
  8. use therapeutic communication skills such as attending and active listening during therapeutic interactions and motivating and facilitating client behaviors in order to maximize client performance.
  9. communicate effectively both verbally and non-verbally; elicit and describe factual information and perceive information derived from verbal and nonverbal communication and social cues.
  10. be appropriately assertive as required to speak in class, initiate and guide the therapy process, establish limits as needed for the safety of self and clients and establish professional identity within complex systems.
  11. utilize the computer for communication and class assignments.
  12. exhibit professional demeanor including appropriate language and dress, and acceptance of responsibility for conduct.
  13. demonstrate organizational and time management skills and ability to prioritize activities effectively as needed to attend class and fulfill class requirements.
  14. exhibit flexibility and adapt to changing environments and expectations.
  15. cope with stresses encountered in the intensive educational process as well as clinical practice environments.
  16. demonstrate consistent work behaviors including initiative, preparedness, dependability, punctual attendance and work site maintenance.
  17. tolerate working in environments where there is exposure to disability, illness, pain and death.
  18. observe persons and scenarios and elicit relevant information for use in assessment and intervention.
  19. plan, guide and implement both individual and group interventions.
  20. maintain ethical standards including honesty, integrity and confidentiality at all times.
  21. produce the required volume of work in the expected time frame.

Student must possess sufficient BEHAVIORAL/SOCIAL-COMMUNICATION SKILLS, AND PROFESSIONAL BEHAVIORS to:

  1. demonstrate positive interpersonal skills including, but not limited to, cooperation, flexibility, tact, sympathy and confidence.
  2. demonstrate respect for diversity, including but not limited to, socio-cultural, socioeconomic, spiritual and lifestyle choices.
  3. collaborate with classmates, clients, family members, significant others and team members.
  4. function successfully in supervisory and instructor-student relationships; change and adjust behavior and performance in the classroom, laboratory or clinic on the basis of instructor feedback.
  5. communicate in the English language effectively and clearly in oral and written forms, using proper spelling, punctuation and grammar to explain procedures and teach skills.
  6. use language appropriate to the recipient, with faculty, peers, clients and other health professionals from different social and cultural backgrounds to obtain information from clients, peers, faculty, supervisors and other professionals.
  7. use communication skills needed to practice safely.
  8. use therapeutic communication skills such as attending and active listening during therapeutic interactions and motivating and facilitating client behaviors in order to maximize client performance.
  9. communicate effectively both verbally and non-verbally; elicit and describe factual information and perceive information derived from verbal and nonverbal communication and social cues.
  10. be appropriately assertive as required to speak in class, initiate and guide the therapy process, establish limits as needed for the safety of self and clients and establish professional identity within complex systems.
  11. utilize the computer for communication and class assignments.
  12. exhibit professional demeanor including appropriate language and dress, and acceptance of responsibility for conduct.
  13. demonstrate organizational and time management skills and ability to prioritize activities effectively as needed to attend class and fulfill class requirements.
  14. exhibit flexibility and adapt to changing environments and expectations.
  15. cope with stresses encountered in the intensive educational process as well as clinical practice environments.
  16. demonstrate consistent work behaviors including initiative, preparedness, dependability, punctual attendance and work site maintenance.
  17. tolerate working in environments where there is exposure to disability, illness, pain and death.
  18. observe persons and scenarios and elicit relevant information for use in assessment and intervention.
  19. plan, guide and implement both individual and group interventions.
  20. maintain ethical standards including honesty, integrity and confidentiality at all times.
  21. produce the required volume of work in the expected time frame.

Pharmacy

Students enrolling in the Jefferson School of Pharmacy will receive training to prepare them to practice pharmacy in a variety of practice setting, e.g., community, health care systems, clinics, etc. Regardless of the specific area of practice selected by the student, all students must demonstrate competence in the areas of intellectual, physical and social tasks that together represent the fundamentals of being able to provide contemporary pharmaceutical care. Throughout the curriculum students will be evaluated on their scholastic achievement and ability. In addition, students will be evaluated on their intellectual, physical and emotional capacities to meet the full requirements of the school’s curriculum.

The following technical standards specify those attributes the faculty considers necessary for completing pharmacy training, enabling each graduate to subsequently enter clinical practice, residency or fellowship training. These standards describe the essential functions students must demonstrate in order to fulfill the requirements of a general pharmacy education, and thus, are prerequisites for entrance, continuation, and graduation from the School of Pharmacy.

The Jefferson School of Pharmacy will consider for admission any applicant who demonstrates the ability to perform or to learn to perform the skills listed in this document. Applicants are not required to disclose the nature of their disability(ies), if any, to the Admissions Committee.

However, any applicant with questions about these technical standards is strongly encouraged to discuss the issue with the Associate Dean for Student Affairs prior to the interview process. If appropriate, and upon the request of the applicant/student, reasonable accommodations will be provided.

Certain chronic or recurrent illnesses and problems that interfere with patient care or safety may be incompatible with pharmacy training or practice. Other conditions that may lead to a high likelihood of student illness should be carefully considered. Deficiencies in knowledge base, judgment, integrity, character, or professional attitude or demeanor, which may jeopardize patientcare, may be grounds for course/rotation failure and possible dismissal.

A student must possess aptitude, abilities, and skills in five areas: 1) observation; 2) communication; 3) sensory and motor coordination and function; 4) conceptualization, integration and quantitative evaluation; and 5) behavioral and social skills, abilities and aptitude. These are described in detail below. The program faculty will monitor maintenance of these standards.

Students must be able to independently perform the described functions.

1. OBSERVATION

Students must be able to observe demonstrations and conduct exercises in a variety of areas related to contemporary pharmacy practice, including but not limited to, monitoring of drug response and preparation of specialty dosage forms. A student must be able to observe a patient accurately at a distance and close at hand, noting nonverbal as well as verbal signals. Specific vision-related requirements include, but are not limited to the following abilities: visualizing and discriminating findings on drug or fluid monitoring tests; reading written and illustrated material; observing demonstrations in the classroom or laboratory, including projected slides and video presentations; observing and differentiating changes in body movement; observing anatomic structures; discriminating numbers and patterns associated with diagnostic and monitoring instruments and tests, and competently using instruments for monitoring drug response.

2. COMMUNICATION

Students must be able to relate effectively and sensitively with patients and their caregivers and or partners, and convey a sense of compassion and empathy. A student must be able to communicate clearly with, and observe patients in order to elicit information, accurately describe changes in mood, activity and posture, and perceive verbal as well as nonverbal communication. Communication includes not only speech but also reading and writing. Students must be able to communicate quickly, effectively and efficiently in oral and written English with all members of the health care team and to patients or their care provider. Specific requirements include but are not limited to the following abilities; communicating rapidly and clearly with the health care team on rounds; eliciting a thorough history from patients; and communicating complex findings in appropriate terms to patients and their caregivers, partners and various members of the healthcare team (fellow students, physicians, nurses, aides, therapists, social workers, and others). Students must learn to recognize and promptly respond to emotional communication such as sadness, worry, agitation, and lack of comprehension of communication. Each student must be able to read and record observations and care plans legibly, efficiently and accurately. Students must be able to prepare and communicate concise but complete summaries of individual encounters and complex, prolonged encounters with patients. Students must be able to complete forms or appropriately document activities according to directions in a complete and timely fashion.

3. SENSORY AND MOTOR COORDINATION OR FUNCTION

Students must have sufficient sensory and motor function to monitor drug response and to prepare and or dispense pharmaceuticals. A student should be able to execute motor movements reasonably required to participate in the general care and emergency treatment of patients. They must be able to respond promptly to urgencies within the practice setting and must not hinder the ability of their co-workers to provide prompt care. Examples of such emergency treatment reasonably required of pharmacists include arriving quickly when called, participating in the initiation of appropriate procedures, and rapidly and accurately preparing appropriate emergency medication.

4. INTELLECTUAL-CONCEPTUAL INTEGRATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE ABILITIES

These abilities include measurement, calculation, reasoning, analysis, judgment, numerical recognition and synthesis. Especially important is the appropriate and rapid calculation of dosages in a variety of conditions such as renal or hepatic failure, obesity, cardiac or respiratory arrest, etc. Additionally, calculations involving appropriate dilution or reconstitution of drug products, electrolytes, etc. must be made accurately and quickly. Problem solving, a critical skill demanded of all pharmacists, requires all of these intellectual abilities and must be performed quickly, especially in emergency situations. Students must be able to identify significant findings from history, physical assessment, and laboratory data; provide a reasonable explanation and analysis of the problem; determine when additional information is required; suggest appropriate medications and therapy; develop appropriate treatment plans to improve patient outcomes; develop patient counseling information at a complexity level appropriate to a particular situation; and retain and recall information in an efficient and timely manner. The ability to incorporate new information from peers or teachers, and to locate and evaluate new information from the literature to be used appropriately in formulating assessments and pharmaceutical care plans is essential, as is good judgment in patient assessment and therapeutic planning for disease management. Students must be able to identify and communicate the limits of their knowledge to others when appropriate and be able to recognize when the limits of their knowledge indicate further study or investigation is essential before participating in decision making. Students must be able to interpret graphs or charts describing biologic, economic or outcome relationships.

5. BEHAVIORAL ATTRIBUTES

Empathy, integrity, honesty, concern for others, good interpersonal skills, interest and motivation are all personal qualities that are required. Students must possess the emotional health required for full use of their intellectual abilities; the exercise of good judgment; the prompt completion of all responsibilities attendant to the care of patients; and the development of mature, sensitive and effective relationships with patients and their caregivers and partners. At times this requires the ability to be aware of and appropriately react to one's own immediate emotional responses and environment. For example, students must maintain a professional demeanor and organization in the face of long hours and personal fatigue, dissatisfied patients, and tired colleagues. Students must be able to develop professional relationships with patients and their caregivers and partners, providing comfort and reassurance when appropriate while protecting patient confidentiality. Students must possess adequate endurance to tolerate physically taxing workloads and to function effectively under stress or with distractions. All students are at times required to work for extended periods, occasionally with rotating shifts. Students must be able to adapt to changing environments, to display flexibility, and to learn to function in the face of uncertainties inherent in the clinical problems of many patients. Students must also develop the skills necessary to instruct and supervise technical personnel assisting with the delivery of pharmaceutical services. Students are expected to accept appropriate suggestions and criticism and if necessary, respond quickly, appropriately and cooperatively by modification of behavior.

Reference: Technical Standards, taken from the UK College of Pharmacy Bulletin 2012-13. http://pharmcy.mc.uky.edu/programs/pharmd/files/bulletin.pdf. Accessed May 2013.

Physical Therapy

The information below delineates the cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills deemed essential to completion of the Physical Therapy degree programs at Thomas Jefferson University and to perform as a competent generalist physical therapist.

If a student cannot demonstrate the following skills and abilities, it is the responsibility of the student to request an appropriate accommodation. The University will provide reasonable accommodations, which may include accommodations that do not fundamentally alter the nature of the program offered and do not impose undue hardship, such as those that are unduly costly or are disruptive to the educational process.

Cognitive Skills

The student must demonstrate the following abilities:

  1. Receive, interpret, remember, reproduce and use information in the cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains of learning to solve problems and generate new ways of processing or categorizing information as listed in course objectives
  2. Perform a physical therapy examination, including analysis of physiologic, biomechanical, behavioral, cultural and environmental factors, in a timely manner that is consistent with the norms of clinical settings
  3. Use examination findings to execute a plan of care in a timely manner that is appropriate to the problems identified and consistent with the acceptable norms of clinical settings

Psychomotor Skills

The student must demonstrate the following abilities:

  1. Locomotion:
    1. Get to lecture, laboratory and clinical locations, and move within rooms as necessary to change groups, partners and workstations
    2. Physically maneuver in required clinical settings to accomplish assigned tasks
  2. Manual skills:
    1. Maneuver another person's body parts to perform examination and treatment techniques effectively
    2. Manipulate common tools used for screening and examination tests, e.g., sphygmomanometer, goniometer, cotton balls, safety pins, reflex hammer.
    3. Safely and effectively guide, facilitate, inhibit and resist movement and motor patterns through physical facilitation and inhibition techniques, including the ability to give urgent verbal feedback.
    4. Safely manipulate another person's body in transfers, gait, positioning, and exercise and mobilization techniques.
    5. Manipulate examination and intervention equipment and safely and accurately apply to patients.
    6. Manipulate bolsters, pillows, plinths, mats, gait assistive devices, and other supports or chairs to aid in positioning, moving or treating a patient safely and effectively.
    7. Competently perform and supervise cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) using guidelines issued by the American Heart Association or the American Red Cross.
  3. Fine motor skills:
    1. Legibly record/document examinations, patient care notes, referrals, etc. in standard medical charts in clinical settings in a timely manner and consistent with the acceptable norms of the clinical setting.
    2. Legibly record thoughts for written assignments and tests.
    3. Sense changes in an individual's muscle tone, skin quality, joint play, kinesthesia and temperature to gather accurate objective information in a timely manner, and sense that individual's response to environmental changes and treatment.
    4. Safely apply and adjust therapeutic modalities.
    5. Use a telephone.
  4. Visual acuity to:
    1. Receive visual information from classmates, faculty and patients regarding movement, posture, body mechanics and gait necessary for comparison to normal standards for purposes of examination and eval-uation of movement dysfunctions.
    2. Receive visual information from the treatment environment, including but not limited to dials on modalities and monitors, assistive devices, furniture, flooring and structures.
  5. Communication:
    1. Effectively communicate with other students, faculty, patients, peers, staff and personnel to ask questions, explain conditions and procedures, teach home programs, and for safety in a timely manner and within the acceptable norms of academic and clinical settings.
    2. Receive and interpret written communication in both academic and clinical settings in a timely manner.
    3. Receive and send verbal communication in life threatening situations in a timely manner and within acceptable norms of clinical settings.

Affective Skills

The student must be able to:

  1. Demonstrate appropriate affective behaviors and mental attitudes in order not to jeopardize the emotional, physical, mental and behavioral safety of clients and other individuals with whom they interact in the academic and clinical settings.
  2. Comply with the ethical standards of the American Physical Therapy Association.
  3. Sustain the mental and emotional rigors of a demanding educational pro-gram in physical therapy, which includes academic and clinical compo-nents that occur within set time constraints.
  4. Acknowledge and respect individual values and opinions in order to foster harmonious working relationships with colleagues, peers and patients.

The above requirements are based on skills identified in the Guide to Physical Therapist Practice, 2nd ed. Physical Therapy 2001; 81:9-744. Reviewed and adopted by the Physical Therapy Department, September 2006.

Physician Assistant Studies

The technical standards for admission set forth by the Department of Physician Assistant Studies establish the essential qualities that are considered necessary for students admitted to this program to achieve the knowledge, skills and levels of competency stipulated for graduation by the faculty and expected of the professional program by its accrediting agency (ARC-PA, Inc.). All students admitted to this program are expected to demonstrate the attributes and meet the expectations listed below. These Technical Standards are required for admission and also must be maintained throughout a student's progress through the Physician Assistant Program. In the event that, during training, a student is unable to fulfill these technical standards, with or without reasonable accommodations, then the student may be asked to leave the program.

Students must possess aptitude, ability, and skills in the following areas:

  1. General
  2. Observation
  3. Communication
  4. Motor coordination and function
  5. Conceptualization, integration, and quantization
  6. Behavioral and social skills, abilities, and aptitudes
  7. Professionalism

General: The student is expected to possess functional use of the senses of vision, touch, hearing, taste, and smell so that data receiv ed by the senses may be integrated, analyzed, and synthesized in a consistent and accurate manner. A student must also possess the ability to perceive pain, pressure, temperature, position, vibration, position equilibrium, and movement that are important to the student’s ability to gather significant information needed to effectively evaluate patients.

Observation: The student must have sufficient capacity to accurately observe and participate in the lecture hall, the laboratory, and with patients at a distance and close at hand, including non-verbal and verbal signals, to assess health and illness alterations in the outpatient and inpatient clinical settings. Inherent in the observational process is the use of the senses to elicit information through procedures regularly required in physical examination, such as inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation.

Communication: The student must communicate effectively verbally and non-verbally to elicit information; describe changes in mood, activity, posture; and perceive non-verbal communications from patients and others. Each student must have the ability to read and write, comprehend and speak the English language to facilitate communication with patients, their family members, and other professionals in health care settings where written medical records, verbal presentations, and patient counseling and instruction are integral to effective medical practice and patient care. The student must communicate effectively verbally and in writing with instructors and other students in the classroom setting, as well.

Motor coordination and function: The student must be able to perform gross and fine motor movements with sufficient coordination needed to perform complete physical examinations utilizing the techniques of inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation, and other diagnostic maneuvers. A student must develop the psychomotor skills reasonably needed to perform or assist with procedures, treatments, administration of medication, management and operation of diagnostic and therapeutic medical equipment utilized in the general and emergent care of patients required in practice as a physician assistant. The student must be able to maintain consciousness and equilibrium; have sufficient levels of postural control, neuromuscular control, and eye-to-hand coordination; and to possess the physical and mental stamina to meet the demands associated with extended periods of sitting, standing, moving, and physical exertion required for satisfactory performance in the clinical and classroom settings.

Conceptualization, integration, and quantization: The student must be able to develop and refine problem-solving skills that are crucial to practice as a physician assistant. Problem solving involves the abilities to comprehend three-dimensional relationships and understand the spatial relationships of structures; to measure, calculate reason, analyze, and synthesize objective and subjective data; and to make decisions that reflect consistent and thoughtful deliberation and sound clinical judgment. A student must have the capacity to read and comprehend medical literature. Each student must demonstrate mastery of these skills and the ability to incorporate new information from peers, teachers, and the medical literature to formulate sound judgment in patient assessment and diagnostic and therapeutic planning.

Behavioral and social skills, abilities, and aptitudes: Flexibility, compassion, integrity, motivation, effective interpersonal skills, and concern for others are personal attributes required of those in physician assistant practice. Personal comfort and acceptance of the role of a dependent practitioner functioning under supervision is essential for training and practice as a physician assistant. The student must possess the emotional health required for full utilization of the student’s intellectual abilities; the exercise of good judgment; the prompt completion of all responsibilities in the classroom setting, as well as those in the clinical setting attendant to the diagnosis and care of patients; and the development of mature, sensitive, and effective relationships with patients and other members of the health care team. Each student must have the emotional stability required to exercise stable, sound judgment and to complete assessment and interventional activities. The ability to establish rapport and maintain sensitive, interpersonal relationships with individuals, families, and groups from a variety of social, emotional, cultural and intellectual backgrounds is critical for practice as a physician assistant. The student must be able to tolerate physically taxing loads and still function effectively under stress; adapt to changing environments; display flexibility; graciously accept constructive criticism; manage difficult interpersonal relationships during training; and learn to function cooperatively and efficiently in the face of uncertainties inherent in clinical practice.

Professionalism: A candidate/student must consistently display honesty, integrity, respect for self and others, tolerance, caring, fairness, and dedication to their patients, peers, PA faculty and staff, TJU faculty and staff, the community and the PA profession.

In compliance with Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, and applicable federal and state laws, Thomas Jefferson University ensures people with disabilities will have an equal opportunity to participate in its programs and activities. Members and guests of the Jefferson community who have a disability need to register with the Office of Student Life, if requesting auxiliary aids, accommodations, and services to participate in Thomas Jefferson University’s programs. All requests for reasonable and appropriate auxiliary aids, acad emic adjustments, and services will be considered on a case-by-case basis and in a timely fashion

Radiologic Sciences

  1. Sufficient visual acuity to administer contrast agents accurately and to monitor imaging equipment as well as provide the necessary patient assessment and care.
  2. Sufficient auditory perception to receive verbal communication from patients and members of the healthcare team and to assess the health needs of people through the use of monitoring devices such as intercom systems, blood pressure gauges and fire alarms.
  3. Sufficient gross and fine motor coordination to respond promptly and to implement skills related to the performance of CT, such as positioning, transporting and imaging patients. CT technologists must be able to manipulate equipment such as the scan console and power injectors. In addition, CT technologists must perform venipuncture on a regular basis.
  4. Sufficient communication skills (verbal, reading, writing) to interact with individuals and to communicate their needs promptly and effectively, as may be necessary in the patient's/client's interest.
  5. Sufficient intellectual and emotional function to plan and implement patient care.


Examples of specific technical standards the Invasive Cardiovascular Technology student must be able to meet are:

  • Lift, transfer and/or move patients from wheelchair/stretcher to scan table, including trauma patients.
  • Physical agility: sitting (4-7 hours).
  • Physical and mental abilities to handle moderate and frequent exposure to infectious agents (blood, urine, etc.).
  • Manual dexterity and ability to bend/stretch.
  • Distinguish colors and shades of gray.
  • Demonstrate effective interpersonal skills, including patient instruction.
  • Read and extract information from the medical chart or patient requisitions.
  • Explain the clinical study verbally and/or in writing.

An Invasive Cardiovascular Technologist is typically employed in a hospital to assist physicians with cardiac catheterization procedures and provide direct patient care. Clinical and laboratory assignments for the Invasive Cardiovascular program require certain physical demands that are the technical standards of admission. These standards are based upon the minimum tasks performed by graduates of the program. Listed below are the technical standards which all applicants are must meet in order to participate and complete the ICVT program.

  1. Sufficient visual acuity to read catheterization procedure prescriptions and charts, observe conditions of the patient and evaluate hemodynamic monitoring equipment.
  2. Sufficient auditory perception to receive verbal communication from patients and members of the healthcare team and to assess the health needs of people through the use of monitoring devices such as intercom systems, cardiac monitors, respiratory monitors and fire alarms.
  3. Sufficient gross and fine motor coordination to respond promptly and to implement skills related to the performance of imaging exams, such as movement of patients and equipment.
  4. Sufficient communication skills (verbal, reading, writing) to interact with individuals and to communicate their needs promptly and effectively, as may be necessary in the patient's/client's interest.
  5. Sufficient intellectual and emotional function to plan and implement patient care.


Examples of specific technical standards the Invasive Cardiovascular Technology student must be able to meet are:

  • Lift, transfer and/or move patients from wheelchair/stretcher to procedure table.
  • Lift, move, reach or push equipment.
  • Manual dexterity and ability to bend/stretch.
  • Physical agility: sitting (4-7 hours), standing (4-7 hours).
  • Carry 12-30 pounds (lead aprons) while working.
  • Distinguish colors and shades of gray.
  • Demonstrate effective interpersonal relation skills, including patient instruction
  • Physical and mental abilities to handle moderate and frequent exposure to infectious agents (blood, urine, etc.) and moderate exposure to frequent ionizing radiation.
  • Read and extract information from the medical chart or patient requisitions
  • Explain the clinical study verbally and/or in writing

 

A Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Technologist is typically employed in a hospital or a clinic to provide direct care for patients and must be able to apply verified knowledge and skillfully perform MRI procedures. Clinical and laboratory assignments for the MRI program require certain physical demands that are the technical standards of admission. These standards are based upon the minimum tasks performed by graduates of the program as recommended by the American Society of Radiologic Technologists. Listed below are the technical standards that all applicants must meet in order to participate and complete the MRI program:

  1. Sufficient visual acuity to accurately administer contrast agents and to monitor imaging equipment as well as provide the necessary patient assessment and care.
  2. Sufficient auditory perception to receive verbal communication from patients and members of the healthcare team and to assess the health needs of people through the use of monitoring devices such as intercom systems, cardiac monitors, respiratory monitors and fire alarms.
  3. Sufficient gross and fine motor coordination to respond promptly and to implement skills related to the performance of MRI, such as positioning, transporting and imaging patients. MRI technologists must be able to manipulate equipment such as the scan console, power injectors and various RF receiver coils. In addition, MRI technologists must perform venipuncture on a regular basis.
  4. Sufficient communication skills (verbal, reading, writing) to interact with individuals and to communicate their needs promptly and effectively, as may be necessary in the patient's/client's interest.
  5. Sufficient intellectual and emotional function to plan and implement patient care.


Examples of specific technical standards the MRI student must be able to meet are:

  • Lift, transfer and/or move patients from wheelchair/stretcher to scan table. Dock/release and wheel scan table to/from scan room to patient waiting area.
  • Lift, move, reach or push MRI equipment (lift MRI coils of up to 25 lbs., push/wheel docking table with patient to/from scan room).
  • Manual dexterity and ability to bend/stretch.
  • Distinguish colors and shades of gray.
  • Demonstrate effective interpersonal relation skills, including patient instruction.
  • Read and extract information from the medical chart or patient requisitions.
  • Explain the clinical study verbally and/or in writing.

To perform/assist with MRI procedures on patients, students must initially undergo the same screening procedures as patients in order to enter the scan room. The MRI scan room contains a region of intense magnetic field. Objects that display any form of ferromagnetism are therefore of particular concern for MRI. Contraindications for entering the MRI scan room include:

  • Certain biomedical implants, materials, and devices (e.g., aneurysm clips, brain clips).
  • Certain electrically, magnetically and mechanically activated implants and devices (e.g., cardiac pacemakers, cochlear implants).
  • Certain metallic foreign objects (e.g., shrapnel, bullets, metal in eyes).

A Medical Dosimetrist is typically employed in a hospital or outpatient oncology center.

Clinical and laboratory assignments for the Dosimetry program require certain physical demands that are the technical standards of admission. These standards are based upon Standards of Practice for the Medical Dosimetrist. Listed below are the technical standards which all applicants must meet in order to participate and complete the dosimetry program.

  1. Sufficient visual acuity to read x-ray prescriptions & charts, observe conditions of the patient & evaluate images.
  2. Sufficient auditory perception to receive verbal communication from patients and members of the healthcare team and to assess the health needs of people through the use of monitoring devices such as intercom systems, cardiac monitors, respiratory monitors, fire alarms, etc.
  3. Sufficient gross and fine motor coordination to respond promptly and to implement skills related to the performance of imaging exams and treatments. Dosimetrists must be able to manipulate equipment such as the linear accelerator, treatment table and control panel.
  4. Sufficient communication skills (verbal, reading, writing) to interact with individuals and to communicate their needs promptly and effectively, as may be necessary in the patient’s/client’s interest.
  5. Sufficient intellectual and emotional function to plan and implement patient care.

Examples of specific technical standards the dosimetry student must be able to meet are:

  • Lift, transfer and/or move patients from wheelchair/stretcher to simulation or treatment table.
  • Stand and reach to make measurements of patients
  • Manual dexterity and ability to bend/stretch
  • Distinguish color and shades of gray
  • Grasp complex 3-D spatial relationships
  • Demonstrate effective interpersonal skills, including patient instruction
  • Read and extract information from the medical chart or patient prescriptions
  • Explain the clinical study and treatment verbally and/or in writing
  • Physical and mental abilities to handle moderate and frequent exposure to infectious agents (blood, urine etc.) and moderate and limited exposure to ionizing radiation
  • Ability to lift 30 pounds of weight (treatment aids).
  • Ability to type and use a computer keyboard and mouse and read or draw contours on screen.

In order to complete the Nuclear Medicine Technology program, a student must meet the following technical standards, which are based on recommendations by the ASRT.

  1. Sufficient visual acuity to accurately prepare and administer radiopharmaceuticals, and other medications, and to monitor imaging equipment as well as provide the necessary patient assessment and care.
  2. Sufficient auditory perception to receive verbal communication from patients and members of the healthcare team, and to assess the health needs of people through monitoring devices such as intercom systems, blood pressure gauges, and fire alarms.
  3. Sufficient gross and fine motor coordination to respond promptly and to implement skills related to the performance of NM, such as positioning, transporting and imaging patients. NM technologists must be able to lift and transport lead blocks or radionuclide generators weighing up to 50 pounds. In addition, NM technologists must perform venipuncture on a regular basis.
  4. Sufficient communication skills (verbal, reading, writing) to interact with individuals and to communicate their needs promptly and effectively, as may be necessary in the patient’s interest.
  5. Sufficient intellectual and emotional function to plan and implement patient care.

Examples of specific technical standards the NM student must be able to meet are:

  • Lift, transfer and/or move patients from wheelchair/stretcher to imaging table
  • Lift, move, reach or push NM equipment
  • Manual dexterity and ability to bend/stretch
  • Distinguish colors and shades of gray
  • Demonstrate effective interpersonal skills, including patient instruction
  • Read and extract information from the medical chart or patient requisition
  • Explain the clinical study verbally and/or in writing
  • Physical and mental abilities to handle moderate and frequent exposure to infectious agents (blood, urine) and moderate exposure to ionizing radiation

A Radiation Therapist is typically employed in a hospital or clinic.

Clinical and laboratory assignments for the Radiation Therapy program require certain physical demands that are the technical standards of admission. These standards are based upon the minimum tasks performed by graduates of the program as recommended by the American Society of Radiologic Technologists. Listed below are the technical standards which all applicants must meet in order to participate and complete the radiography program.

  1. Sufficient visual acuity to read x-ray prescriptions & charts, observe conditions of the patient & evaluate x-ray images.
  2. Sufficient auditory perception to receive verbal communication from patients and members of the healthcare team and to assess the health needs of people through the use of monitoring devices such as intercom systems, cardiac monitors, respiratory monitors, fire alarms, etc.
  3. Sufficient gross and fine motor coordination to respond promptly and to implement skills related to the performance of imaging exams, such as positioning and transporting patients. X-ray technologists must be able to manipulate equipment such as the x-ray tube, table and control panel.
  4. Sufficient communication skills (verbal, reading, writing) to interact with individuals and to communicate their needs promptly and effectively, as may be necessary in the patient’s/client’s interest.
  5. Sufficient intellectual and emotional function to plan and implement patient care.

Examples of specific technical standards the radiation therapy student must be able to meet are:

  • Lift, transfer and/or move patients from wheelchair/stretcher to x-ray table. Lift, move, reach or push equipment
  • Manual dexterity and ability to bend/stretch
  • Be able to stand or walk for 75% of clinical time
  • Distinguish color and shades of gray
  • Demonstrate effective interpersonal skills, including patient instruction
  • Read and extract information from the medical chart or patient prescriptions
  • Explain the clinical study verbally an/or in writing
  • Physical and mental abilities to handle moderate and frequent exposure to infectious agents (blood, urine etc.) and moderate exposure to ionizing radiation
  • Carry 12-30 pounds (lead aprons) while working

Specific technical standards the radiography student must be able to meet are:

  • Lift, transfer and/or move patients from wheelchair/stretcher to x-ray table.
  • Lift, move reach or push equipment
  • Manual dexterity and ability to bend/stretch.
  • Be able to stand or walk for 75% of clinical time.
  • Distinguish colors and shades of gray.
  • Demonstrate effective interpersonal skills, including patient instruction.
  • Read and extract information from the medical chart or patient prescriptions.
  • Explain the clinical study verbally and /or in writing.
  • Physical and mental abilities to handle moderate and frequent exposure to infectious agents (blood, urine) and moderate and limited exposure to ionizing radiation.
  • Carry 12-30 pounds (lead aprons) while working.

Clinical and laboratory assignments for the Sonography program require certain physical demands that are the minimum technical standards for admission. Listed below are the technical standards that all students must meet in order to enter and complete the Sonography program.

The prospective student must be able to routinely:

  • Bend, stoop, reach and stretch the arms and body, often utilizing awkward and non-ergonomically correct positions
  • Assist patient on/off examination tables
  • Work standing on one’s feet 80% of the time
  • Have sufficient manual dexterity to manipulate the ultrasound transducer and operator controls
  • Have sufficient gross and fine motor coordination to implement skills related to the performance of ultrasound such as positioning, transporting and scanning patients.
  • Sonographers must be able to manipulate heavy ultrasound equipment, such as for portable examinations, move patient beds, and must be able to assist patients that are unable to assist themselves. Also must be able to lift up to 50 lbs.
  • Have sufficient auditory perception to receive verbal communication from patients and members of the healthcare team. This includes assessing the health needs of patients through the use of cardiac/respiratory monitors, fire alarms, intercoms, etc.
  • Sufficient visual acuity to view grayscale and color images on a computer monitor or film, and read written reports, chart orders, etc.
  • Interact compassionately with the sick or injured
  • Perform proper steps in a procedure in an organized manner and in a specific sequence
  • Have the ability to write or otherwise provide a preliminary report using sonographic terminology
  • Communicate effectively with patients and other health care providers. This includes verbal, reading and writing skills.