The J-1 Exchange
Those who enter the United States with the J-1 or J-2 visa are called Exchange Visitors. The J-1 Exchange Visitor visa may be used by those coming to the United States to study, teach, conduct research, or receive training. The purpose of the Exchange Visitor Program is to provide foreign nationals with opportunities to participate in educational and cultural programs in the United States and return home to share their experiences, and to encourage Americans to participate in educational and cultural programs in other countries. It does not require a one-to-one reciprocal exchange.
The J visa is obtained by presenting a Form DS-2019 to a U.S. embassy or consulate. The DS-2019 is issued by the Exchange Visitor sponsor, which may be a university, government agency, or other organizations.