The JSE was designed to evaluate physicians and other practicing health care professionals, medical students and other health professions students.
Frequently Asked Questions
There are three official versions of the JSE. One version was developed for administration to physicians and other practicing health professionals (Physician/HP-Version). The other versions are for administration to medical students (S-version) and other health professions students (HPS version). All are similar in content with minor modifications in wording of some items to maintain their face and content validities for the target populations. For example, an item beginning “My understanding…” in the Physician/HP version begins “Physicians’ understanding…” or “Health care providers’ understanding…” in the medical student and health professions student versions,” respectively.
Generally reports are emailed within 10 business days of receipt of the forms. If web administered, reports are emailed within 10 business days of the client’s verification notice to close the survey. Additional analyses and/or problems in coding paper forms may delay completion. Reports for surveys administered on Thomas Jefferson University web are not sent until payment is received.
A standard report includes:
- Descriptive statistics of scores including mean, standard deviation, range, mode and
quartiles for the entire sample
- A histogram showing distribution of empathy scores for the entire sample
- An empathy score for each respondent
- Matrix of raw data and individual scores in electronic form (Excel spreadsheet)
Procedures for web administration are:
- A survey code is created for your test and the web address (link) is sent to you.
- You contact each of your participants, giving them the web address and tell them what Respondent ID you want them to use. The ID must be unique for each individual. Scores will be reported by this ID code. It may have a maximum of 9 alphanumeric characters.
- Participants use the link to go to the website, log in with their “Respondent ID” and complete the JSE.
- You contact us to verify your survey closing date, your data is processed and the standard report is emailed to you.
An administration is a collection of data from up to 400 respondents. A standard report is created for all respondents. In practice, most surveys are active for a few weeks and have about 100 respondents. Note that pretests and posttests constitute separate administrations. Administrations are based on when the reports are created, not on the number of participants. A single administration includes these steps: 1) A group of participants complete the survey, 2) the survey is closed, and 3) a standard report for that group is created.
No,if a respondent logs in to the survey with the assigned unique ID code, and exits before the scale is completed, s/he will be able to complete the survey upon logging in again with the exact same ID code; however, once the scale is complete, that ID code may not be used to enter the survey a second time. Pretests and posttests, which are matched based on the unique ID code, constitute separate administrations.
All versions of the scale are available for administration on the Thomas Jefferson University website and scoring is included. In some cases permission has been given for clients to post the JSE on their own website given that certain conditions regarding the text of the items, their order of appearance, instructions, response scale, etc. are met. Scoring services are not available when data are collected on other websites. Contact us for specific conditions. You must email your agreement to the conditions before the order can be processed.
The psychometric support we have reported is applicable to the entire scale and we recommend using the entire scale to maintain integrity in scoring and allow comparability of your results. If a portion of the scale is used, the study investigators are responsible for providing evidence in support of psychometrics of the items selected. We strongly recommend that some indicators of psychometric support for the revised version be examined by calculating the Cronbach coefficient alpha (an indicator of reliability) and correlations between responses to each item and the total score (minus corresponding item) to verify that each of the items selected contributes positively and significantly to the total score.
We offer our services to insure accuracy and consistency in data entry and integrity in scoring. Our scoring programs include identification and handling of missing data and dealing with outliers as well as scoring. If you choose to score the JSE yourself you should have verification of data entry and you must agree to adhere to our scoring algorithm.
We do not accept credit cards or purchase orders, only checks; however, we understand that preparing a check may take time. If time is critical to your study, we can send the invoice along with the order so your research will not be delayed.
Norm tables and cut off scores are calculated using data collected from representative samples at the national level. We are hopeful that in the future we will be able to develop national norm tables and determine cut off scores. At the present time, we recommend that the score distribution for your sample be examined. Low scorers can be identified at the lower tail of the score distribution by using standard deviation units below the mean score, or a certain percent of low scores on the score distribution.
Hard copies of the JSE forms are sent via FedEx. To see a table with shipping and handling charges, click here
The JSE has been translated into 49 languages/dialects as of May 2015. To see a table of translations and their availability, click here. When you purchase the JSE, the English version of the scale is sent to you with permission to translate the scale into your language. If a translated version in your language is available we will also send that to you along with contact information for the translator. We do not endorse the accuracy of any translation. We suggest that you compare the translated version with the original English version to judge if the translation is accurate. You are welcome to improve the accuracy of the translation if deemed necessary. We highly recommend using the back-translation procedures in translating or improving the translated versions. We also recommend that you examine some aspects of the psychometrics (item-total score correlations, alpha coefficient) with your own sample.
The JSE is designed for administration to students and practitioners in the health professions. We have developed a brief 10-item scale, the Jefferson Scale of Overall Patient Satisfaction With Primary Care Physicians. This scale has been administered to patients to examine the relationship between physicians’ self-reported empathy and their patients’ perception of the physicians’ empathy. Contact us (firstname.lastname@example.org) if you wish to use this scale..
In the News
American College of Physicians
New research links empathy to outcomes