Thomas Jefferson University

Testicular Cancer

Quick Facts

This disease occurs most often in men between the ages of 20 and 39. Risk factors include having an undescended testicle, congenital abnormalities, previous testicular cancer, or a family history of testicular cancer. Treatment can often cure testicular cancer, but regular follow-up exams are extremely important.


Testicular cancer forms in tissues of one or both testicles. Testicular cancer is most common in young or middle-aged men. Most testicular cancers begin in germ cells (cells that make sperm) and are called testicular germ cell tumors. The two main types of testicular germ cell tumors are seminomas and nonseminomas. These 2 types grow and spread differently and are treated differently.

Specialized Physicians:
Avnish Bhatia, MD
Andrew E. Chapman, DO, FACP
Nathan Handley, MD, PhD
W. Kevin Kelly, DO *
Michael J. Ramirez, MD
Lewis J. Rose, MD

*Practice Focus: Genitourinary Oncology

For further information contact:
Thomas Jefferson University Hospital

Stage 0: Abnormal cells are found in the tiny tubules where the sperm cells begin to develop. The doctor may call this carcinoma in situ.

Stage I: Cancer has formed. Stage I is divided into stage IA, stage IB, and stage IC. In stage I the cancer is in the testicle and may or may not have spread to the outer layer of the membrane surrounding the testicle, the spermatic cord, or the scrotum and may be in the blood vessels or lymph vessels of the testicle.

Stage II: Also divided into stage IIA, IIB, and IIC. In stage II the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes.

Stage III: Also divided into stage IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC. In stage III the cancer may have spread to distant lymph nodes or the lungs and tumor markers are above normal to high.


Treatment options for men with testicular cancer include observation, surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant. Patients may receive more than one type of treatment.

Reference: National Cancer Institute.